GLAZED CERAMIC & PORCELAIN TILE
Ceramic tile is one of the oldest decorative finishing products known. Ceramics dating back many centuries have been found along the banks of the Tigris River in the Middle East. Once available to only the most affluent, ceramic tile is considered to be one of the most fashionable choices for floors, walls and countertops.
Ceramic tile is derived from mixtures of clay, porcelain, sand and natural minerals that are shaped into tile and fired at high temperatures. Recent innovations in production technology have made more beautiful styles available than was previously possible. For instance, those who like the appearance of natural stone but also require maximum durability can now purchase ceramic tile that emulates the look and feel of natural stone.
USES: Interior and exterior, Countertops, Shower and tub surrounds, Interior and exterior
Why Glazed Ceramic and Porcelain Tile?
VARIETY: Ceramic and porcelain tile add value to any setting. Because they are available in an extensive array of sizes, colors, patterns and textures, they can satisfy almost any design preference.
INVESTMENT: Ceramic and porcelain tile, considered permanent products, are listed in the Real Estate Appraisal Guide as building products that increase the value of a home.
DURABILITY: Ceramic and porcelain tile are durable and can be used in many settings. In fact, through-body porcelain tile is durable enough to be used for exterior as well as interior commercial applications.
STAIN-RESISTANCE: Ceramic and porcelain tile are among the most stain-resistant building products available. Most glazed ceramic tile is completely stain proof.
COLOR PERMANENT: Ceramic and porcelain tile are among the few decorative finishing products that do not tend to fade or discolor with sunlight.
DIRT RESISTANT: Ceramic and porcelain tile are among the easiest decorative finishing products to maintain. Soil will simply lie on the surface, permitting quick removal with a dust mop or cleanser.
HYGIENE: Because ceramic and porcelain tile are sanitary, they are good choices for kitchens and bathrooms. They are also hypoallergenic, given that odors, mold, mildew, dust, allergens and bacteria do not tend to get trapped within them.
AFFORDABILITY: Thanks to modern technology, ceramic and porcelain tile are now affordable options for most budgets. Due to their inherent durability and broad applications, they are more cost-effective than most alternative products.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Dye Lot: Tile may vary from dye lot to dye lot in caliber and in color.
THROUGH-BODY PORCELAIN TILE
According to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), porcelain tile is a type of ceramic tile made by the pressed dust method
Through-body tile is derived from mixtures of clay, sand and other natural minerals that are shaped into tile and fired at high temperatures. The pressed dust method results in a porcelain tile with a density so high that water absorption is less than 0.5%. Depending on project objectives, porcelain tile may be purchased glazed, unglazed or polished.
USES: Floors and walls, Countertops, Shower and tub surrounds, Interior and exterior
Why Through-Body Porcelain Tile?
VARIETY: Porcelain tile adds value. Because it is available in a wide range of sizes, colors, patterns and textures, it can satisfy almost any design preference.
DURABILITY: Porcelain combines both beauty and durability. This product is durable enough to be used for exterior as well as high traffic interior applications.
STAIN RESISTANCE: Porcelain tile is stain-resistant.
COLOR PERMANENT: Porcelain tile is one of the few decorative building products that does not tend to fade or discolor with sunlight.
DIRT RESISTANT: Porcelain tile is easy to maintain.
HYGIENE: Porcelain tile is a good choice for kitchens and bathrooms because it is sanitary. It is also hypoallergenic, given that odors, mold, mildew, dust, allergens and bacteria do not tend to get trapped within.
INVESTMENT: Porcelain tile is listed in the Real Estate Appraisal Guide as a permanent building product that increases the value of a building.
AFFORDABILITY: Thanks to modern technology, unglazed porcelain tile is now an affordable option for most budgets. Porcelain tile, due to inherent durability and broad applications, is more cost effective than most alternative products.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Dye Lot: Tile may vary from dye lot to dye lot in size and in color.
Glass tiles can be categorized by manufacturing method. We outline six main methods and surface treatments: smalti, fused, sintered, cast, slumped and etched.
Smalti tiles are typically colorful, textured, small format tiles – good building blocks for artistic mosaics.
“Smalti” is an Italian word, and refers to a glass paste or glaze made up of silica melted with sodium or potassium carbonate. Metals are added as stabilizing agents, as well as metal oxides (for color). The paste is fired at high temperatures, then rolled out into a pancake-like slab that can be up to 6 inches thick. Once cooled, the slab is traditionally hand-cut into small rectangular pieces of tile.
In the fused manufacturing method, flat glass (usually float glass, such as glass used on car windshields) is cut into tiles shapes and then fired in a furnace. As glass is clear, it will show the tile underpay unless treated with color, so this method usually involves the addition of color – by adding it on top or under the glass. Fused glass tiles are often translucent tiles, with a layer of opaque color visible through the tile.
Fused tiles are often treated with an etching or other coating, for aethetic reasons, or to increase resistance to abrasion. Fused tiles can come in virtually any size – from mosaics to large format.
Sintered glass tile is made by pressing glass powder into dies and then heated until the particles fuse. These tiles are often sold in arrays of 1″ × 1″ squares, but can come in sizes up to 3″ × 3″.
In this method, color is either added into the powder or added topically after cooling. Unlike smalti tiles, sintered tiles tend to have a uniform look. With their milky, scratch- resistant finish, sintered tiles are known for their versatility.
Cast tile is made by inserting chunks of glass into a mold. The mold is heated until the pieces melt into each other and become a coherent mass. The result is a layered look. Most recycled glass tile products are made using this method.
Terrazzo glass tile is a cast method that combines an concrete amalgam with glass.
Slumped glass is glass that has been curved into a shape during firing. Slumped glass tiles are usually produced by melting plate glass into relief molds. On cooling, the glass assumes a curved or contoured shape.
These are fused glass tiles with a thin, translucent surface layer. This layer is arrived at through one of three methods:
ABRASION: devices can include sandblasters or laser cutters; by applying an acid etch, such as hydrofluoric acid, to the surface; by applying an additional, cloudy glass surface to the top of the tile.